images1. Synopsis:Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008

Genetic Alliance, Genetic Discrimination. Retrieved on October 2, 2015 from (http://www.geneticalliance.org/advocacy/policyissues/geneticdiscrimination

This article provides a good general synopsis of the Genetic Information Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), a few principle leaders, the effects of GINAand an analysis of shortcomings. The article is sectioned by subcategories, such as what GINA guards against versus what is not covered, both in the realm of insurance providers and employers and includes specific examples of where the law did not protect and illuminates the loopholes for victims of genetic discrimination. Likewise, it demonstrates how individuals are protected.I have used this source to introduce the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 to my readers. By reading this article, one can obtain a good introduction about GINA and use some of the links to explore further.

download (1)2. CalGINA: California State law supplements to the limitations of GINA

Wagner, Jennifer (2011). Genomics Law Report. A New Law to Raise GINA’s Floor in California. Retrieved on October 2, 2015 fromhttp://www.genomicslawreport.com/index.php/2011/12/07/a-new-law-to-raise-ginas-floor-in-california/

Because the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 has limitations and loopholes, CalGINA was created to narrow the loopholes and provides protection in those areas. The author provides a summary of the CalGINA, a California state law that is designed to supplement the GINA and joins the Gender Nondiscrimination Act. CalGINA extends protection to individuals in areas GINA is limiting and in addition includes entities, such as Business code, Taxation Code, Elections Code and Education Code encouraging the prevention of violence.Each state may have a custom law that specifically complements the landscape of their citizens. I am a California citizen, hence have utilize this source to provide direction and progress in the effects of GINA and the influences this law has been for other states. Much can be learned of the additional protection individuals have against discrimination and how states likes California, Vermont, Massachusetts is leading the way for the expansion of human rights.

3. Governments and key leaders involved in Surreptitious Genetic Testing

Vorhaus, Dan (2010). Genomic Law Report. Surreptitious Genetic Testing: Wikileaks Highlights gaps in Privacy Laws. Retrieved on October 2, 2015 fromhttp://www.genomicslawreport.com/index.php/2010/12/09/surreptitious-genetic-testing-wikileaks-highlights-gap-in-genetic-privacy-law/

The author informs their readers of the spying of genetic database by the Chinese and how wider issues of personal elements of identifications like fingerprints and facial makers are being shared, collected and disturbed by organizations by key leaders such as United nations, Arms inspectors. Further, it provides a surreptitious overview and legal implications involved with this type of testing. Because this website shares a wealth of examples and illuminates the vulnerability we live in as genomic sequencing is increasingly prevalent, I included information from this source in my research blog.The information shared here should effectively persuade the reader the reality of the epidemic, ubiquity and the volatility of our privacy is.


Loopholes exposed by prominent Professor Mark Rothstein of Bioethics

Rothstein, Mark. Council for Responsible Genetics. GeneWatch. Beauty is only skin Deep. Retrieved on October 1, 2015fromhttp://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/GeneWatch/GeneWatchPage.aspx?pageId=184&archive=yes

The author Mark Rothstein, Director of the Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, where he holds the Herbert F. Boehl Chair of Law and Medicine. He also holds the Chair for the Subcommittee on Privacy and Confidentiality of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and is President of the American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics gives an ample peer into the loopholes of GINA, but more importantly provides examples and conceptual material as to the reason the loopholes exist. Many examples here are ample in giving readers the reality of the problems that exist and are looming, thus I have extrapolated information from a creditable individual and used it in my research. Girth and depth in understanding of the GINA and the position of victims in regards to genetic discrimination will be obtained after digesting this article.

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4. Biotech industries: Why biotech companies are eager to patent our genes? Why we should consider who has access to our DNA sequence?

Jagger, Karuna. (2015) Breast Cancer Action. Myriad Genetics Finally Relinquishes Monopoly on BRCA Genes. Retrieved on October 3, 2015 from http://www.bcaction.org/2015/01/28/myriad-genetics-finally-relinquishes-monopoly-on-brca-genes/

This article provides a good example of the dynamics of the biotech industry and the reason genetic discrimination is important and why biotech companies would fight for the possibly to patent a gene. Information from hereare incredibly helpful in depicting for my readers the stakeholders and their intent for affording to patent your genes and for you to peer into the world of the financial flame that brews. Financial and global power gained from such a patent (breast cancer gene) could be materialized for the reader to understand on a business platform and financial incentives pharmaceutical and biotech companies have.

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5. Personal genetic testing.  Are they accurate? 

For those thinking personal testing kits are convenient, a great way to learn about potential genetic pitfalls and therefore an excellent product for the price, think again.   This article shines  light on the reality and the complexity by which the process and personal may directly effect the accuracy of results.  There are elements of technological variances that may be compounded by unqualified personal expediting the analysis that misconstrue the interpretations of the test results. The FDA has warned multiple biotechnological companies from retailing to customers as the results of the tests can be inaccurate, cause harm, psychologically and biological as patients may attempt to self mediate. These tests are not regulated or FDA approved. This information serves grounds on the potential societal harm directly related to not misuse of a product but the gray areas of a seemingly health product when really it is at this moment nothing more than a technological product that is portrayed to make one’s life easier and provides the convenience, while oversimplifying health diagnosis and treatment.



6.  Why science evidence itself can be a point of deliberate error, intentional  tampering.

This article/book provides an examples of serious FBI malpractice of forensic science and flawed by the FBI. For an example, an FBI agent modeled for this work of solving crimes despite that he was a bit deviated from normal.  It delves further the reasons for the tampering of evidence and taking advantage of the laxed protocols in order for convenience and the false recording and results.  The pressures and reputation FBI are the motivating drivers for the cause of incriminating an individual.  Science evidence is anything but black and white.  I used this article and finding from this book to understand that the corruption is also apparent in this division of law enforcement and is particularly disturbing that the American people are less aware; the level of dishonesty in not only misleading, provides false protection but can potentially place the American people vulnerable and unprepared to protect ourselves due to the lack of knowledge.


7.  Outdated techniques among prosecutors in Texas prove fallible.

This article demonstrates that convictions using forensic science can be faulty. This article to some degree illustrates the variances in results and the differences in accuracy to the point of gross error. It also demonstrates the different strengths of samples, such as saliva versus touch samples, DNA swapping and that the differences in technique varies from laboratory to laboratory can be a factor of error.  The over eagerness to find one magic wand to be the credit for all, the oversimplification of techniques and desire to feel protected and secured has lead to the exaggerated reliance on DNA, or science for that matter.



8. FBI power shifting to local police and how it is damaging human dignity

This report shows how race, profiling, and treatment of ethnics group are effected negatively.  It also states that the proponents of local databases argue that freedom from CODIS’s regulations allows police to maximize the potential of genetic surveillance to solve crimes and increases clearances permitting more power with less plausible cause.  They include the use of genetic surveillance practices.



9. DNA Mining starts as early as gestation and without your acknowledge

DNA mining can anywhere, virtually and physicality from an arrest, surreptitiously fallen fallen hair, social media, supeona of laboratory, health records, hacked data, from familial searching and even as a developing fetus.  In fact, it is reported that government around the world have collected DNA material during parental doctor visits for the past 40 years , without parental consent.  This information is not sitting idle, instead they have been analyzed, stored indefinitely and shared.  Furthermore, the company that was contracted by the government to analyze and store the genetic material claims to own it.  This is an effort of global surveillance and mass data collection of citizens.  I used this article to further explore the extent of genetic application and direction which violates the people amendments.


10.  List of DNA database bank around the world



11. A possible suit over newborns DNA given to military.

The news about DNA material from a Texas state health department stated that a possible suit lead to 5.3 million samples of DNA newborn material instructed to be destroyed after being revealed that newborns genetic material were being sent to the military to help create a national mitochondrial database.  This article is perturbing and nothing short of distressing. This article reveals some level of government operations and well as the age scope of mining.


12.  An EU briefing describes how your genetic information may be shared with companies such as Google, other commercial companies, storing your genetic material indefinitely, use for marketing, use of your personal medical records without your acknowledgement under the “research exemption.”

Here many details are layed out, council proposals, European Commission and Data Protection and regulations, changes to the  draft.  They disclosed the implications on human rights and the accessibility to linking the information to names and address of people and their family, including the emphasizes of the authority abuse and access to back doors and retrieval of other personal information. There is tremendous potential for exploitation. It also points out the companies such as Google and 23andme are negotiating for access to health and  genetic records. In addition, they are careful to note that “there is no evidence that such targeted “preventative messages” or increased use of medicines or supplements by healthy people will be good for health. Genes are in reality poor predictors of most diseases in most people and genetic tests are in general not useful as a way to decide whether to take medicines or supplements.



13. Not so obvious, but do apply your common sense: Genetic research is political

I found this article to hit the bulls eye. The quite plainly and eloquently in a very reasonable and practical manner that the reason so many millions of dollars are being poured into genetic research when in fact, in proportion to the enormous support has relatively low successful in proving genes are a source of culprit. There are quite a few good reasons for the cause, however namely blame and diversion.  This article can make sense even for the layman.  Without diving into politics or science, it describes linking common knowledge with the motivation behind genetic research funding.  Why is this important, because it will help the reader to unscramble the confusion of why so much effort is continued to be placed in genetics when so little comes from it.  Of course, this does not undermine the other facet, which is forensic science, which is in some ways different. Powerhouse companies such as Google and 23andme are essentially advertising companies and in the case of 23andme selling and marketing products that will help manage their health via the results of genetic material is tied up with Google which also is in the business to mine genetic information but if you are aware of the falsehood, hopefully you will be more critical and skeptical about what you are actually getting, if you decide to offer your genetic material in the face of the good.


14. Google, 23andme and its partners are the new granddaddy government spy in a disguise.

The connection between Google, biotechological companies and governments is weaved concisely in this article. Google and 23andme are siphoning not just your genetic DNA data, but everything via google browser and its partners and comprising unimaginable keep-staking database to sell and be used by other intelligence entities, governments and sectors




15.  Top reasons why you should not share your genetic material on social media ( and other malignant individuals)

Nothing is for free! Hard to imagine, but there is a cost for everything, especially if it sounds too good to be true.  Recall the story of the Little red riding hood. The article lists reasons why you should be cautious to the genetic test, vulnerabilities to discrimination if your information get into the wrong hands, your information can be shared and duplicated to whom are unknown to use, indefinitely, for you, your family and children and children’s children. At the least you should worry about the accuracy, and value of the test, what will you do with the results.  Does it replace a doctor?  More importantly, you should at minimum think about the human right implications and what kind of message you are sending about privacy, security, not just in America but in all the world.


16. No where to hide

Would you post your address along with your photograph?  Well, posting your photo on social media and being laxed with your genetic material or leaving it in the hands of someone assuming they are safekeeping it is a mistake.  The entire idea of DNA database mining is sharing. They, whoever it is can follow you forever!


17.  Who else in is in surveillance network? The NSA.

Here the NSA carefully details how data is collected including strategies, listing stations, bulk collection of U.S citizens phone records, partners in raw intelligence, top secret PRISM program that allows them to tightly track individuals over time. Coupled with social media, companies such as Microsoft, Yahoo, Skype, Apple, NSA monitors, stores and analyzes data including photo images, spy tools, mass aerial and undersea cable surveillance also in real time.  Graphics and maps illustrates stations and networks webs.  Wonderful right! Question, why are so many devastating acts of human demolishments occurring: high jacking of aeroplanes, bombs, human trafficking, etcetera?


** Here is a tour how the NSA justifies and reassures the people how mass survilliance is helping you.


and still more!


18. Google = spy, what!  Yes, say it is not true.

With the NSA, other intelligent entities, Google is the driving force that assembled all the parts and is heading us into the ultimate spying and age of surveillance.



19.  DNA Phenotyping: compiling your physical face with your genetic material.  Yes, it can be done.

Your face can be constructed using your genetic material.  If this is true, and we shed our DNA material everywhere, we are at lost of our privacy. This article informs the use of DNA phenotyping in forensic science.







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